is something for
among you, to give some idea
the extent to which
35 million years ago, volcanic
eruptions under Atlantic form the island.
In the XV
century, Portuguese start
the seafaring "Joao Gonçalves Zarco" discovers the archipelago.
- Portuguese crown claims the island.
-"Zarco" is named co-governor of Madeira (Madeira = wood) with "Tristão
Vaz Teixeira" and "Bartolomeu Perestrelo" governor of Porto Santo.
- Beginning of the colonization and the works on the island.
1420 to 1427, a fire to fertilize
the earth, goes out of
control and devastates several hectares of forest.
water and ashe
(as fattening food) provide
very fertile earth.
The Portuguese decide then to import sugar
cane from Italy and wine (Malvoisie
grape) from Crete.
Madeira to buy sugar. He meets the daughter of the
governor of Porto Santo and marries her. It is said
that from his stay on the island "Columbus" learned
to sail and know the ocean. Perhaps he got the idea at that
timeto embark upon his famous voyagein 1492.
1566, the french privateer Bertrand of
Montluc arrives in the harbour of Funchal with an armada of 11 galleons
and 1300 men. A reign of terror lasts
for 16 days,during which he plunders the island, demolishes
stocks of sugar and kills 300 local people.
1580, when the spanish king Philippe
II proclaims himself King of Portugal, Madeira
becomes a Spanish possession for 60 years.
During the XVIcentury ,
Madeira loses its domination of the
sugar cane industry to
1662, Charles II from England
marries Catherine of Bragance
and gains Madeira as part of the dowry.
is the only
are used for their transport.
lots of English
the island and the
1800 : 9 millions of bottles of Madeira wine
been exported every year.
troops come to the island to protect it from a possible French
invasion but they withdraw after the Treaty of Amiens in 1802.
the treaty is broken and the English
return and remain until 1814.
1852, 90% of the
vineyards are destructed by mildew.
1856, cholera kills about 7000
1873, phylloxera destroys the
rest of the plantations.
1916, Portugal entersWorldWar
In December, Funchal, because of
its strategic position, is bombed by the
In the middle of the 20th. Century,
Madeira starts to develop its tourist industry attracting aristocratic and
The famous hotel "Reids" opens in 1890 and
from Lisbon in 1921.
The islandgains added fame
when the last Austro-Hungarian
Charles I of Austria (Charles IV
of Hungary), chooses the
place of exile after WorldWar
d'etat in Portugal, Madeira receives the statute of autonomous
1986, Portugal joins the EC and
Today, tourism is the primary
industry of the island.